History is a mirror in which students can examine their lives. We believe self-knowledge is the prerequisite of wisdom and that only the examined life is worth living. We hope that the study of history here will be a source of wisdom and worth in our students’ lives, now and in the future. Roxbury Latin boys study history in order to know themselves as moral persons, as participants in the human story, and as members of the human family. If they are to know themselves, young people need to come to terms with the convergence of their individual stories and the great epic of humankind. They need to understand that the institutional and material world (which they perhaps take for granted) is the product of the thought, toil, and sacrifice of people who have gone before them. Similarly, because human nature is revealed and defined by humanity’s past deeds, a knowledge of these deeds is indispensable to a person’s understanding of his or her own nature and potential. Finally, knowledge of the variety of human experiences and conditions should awaken students’ awareness of the duties which their privileges impose upon them. In these ways, history defines paths by which students may find meaning and purpose for their lives.
The study of history allows students to see the greatness and fragility of human nature. On the one hand, the past is a record of aspiration and achievement. On the other hand, history records an almost unbroken sequence of crimes and calamities. Familiarity with humanity’s high and low moments and its noble and wicked individuals is essential to a realistic understanding of oneself and a balanced perspective on the world. To recognize that individuals can make a difference, that “success” is ephemeral while justice, compassion, and beauty endure, is to be both humbled and liberated. If students are led thereby to examine their own lives and enabled to live them more consciously, uprightly, and responsibly, our program has achieved its principal purpose.
Roxbury Latin seeks to prepare its students for full citizenship in the human community. The deliberate and committed participation that such citizenship entails is possible today only with a broad and deep awareness of the variety and complexity of cultures and institutions past and present. This awareness requires, first, a knowledge of the traditions and values of the particular community, society, and culture in which all of us live—a microcosm of humanity. Second, it requires some understanding of other communities, societies, and cultures which constitute the human enterprise. Third, it demands an analytical understanding of the political and economic systems which establish the conditions of much of contemporary human activity. We believe that historical consciousness thus understood is essential for the creative engagement with their world which we hope all our students will seek and achieve.
The history curriculum seeks to fulfill these purposes through a sequence of required courses plus a limited assortment of electives for upperclassmen. The content of these courses comes from a number of historical fields and from several of the other social sciences allied with history. History courses employ a variety of materials in addition to traditional textbooks: primary source documents, fiction, works of art, and monographs. While most history courses examine material in chronological order, none deals with all topics relevant to its subject. Rather than attempt to cover as much ground as possible, teachers select topics they judge to be most important or instructive. In general, our students study a limited amount of material thoroughly, although we are, to some extent, guided by College Entrance Examination Board prescriptions in AP U.S. Government and Politics, AP Economics, AP European History, and AP Art History, and we intentionally expose our youngest students to the sweep of human history in Class VI to lay a foundation for their future learning, both in the classroom and beyond.
Boston’s Place in Human History
Boston’s Place in Human History, informally called “Roots & Shoots,” is required of all boys in Class VI. Students develop a global perspective on Boston’s historical roots by examining how events of world history have shaped who we are and how we live. Students also explore the shoots that have sprouted from Boston’s history to have an impact beyond the city limits—sometimes even globally. By emphasizing the interactions of geography, technology, and religion in influencing various human systems (political, economic, and social), students have an opportunity to examine the movement of people and their ways through time toward better understanding Boston’s place in human history. Emphasis is placed on developing the skills of the historian, an understanding of the evolution of governance in historic Boston, and an appreciation for Boston as a cosmopolitan city in a land of immigrants.
Class V Civics Unit
During the month of May, a unit on Civics for Class V expands upon the foundation in governance laid in the Class VI history curriculum. This unit is designed to strengthen students’ understanding of how government works and to explore ways in which individuals can, and do, make a difference through participating in, and interacting with, government. Emphasis is placed on the electoral process, jury duty, military service, being informed, and the path to citizenship. This course is team-taught and benefits from presentations by guest experts.
Western Civilization, required of all boys in Class IV, focuses on individuals and societies that have contributed significantly to the development of the world in which we live. The course seeks to provide students with an awareness of humanity’s recurring problems, a perspective on their own time, and an appreciation of the seminal individuals of our Western heritage whose ideals influence us today. There is considerable emphasis on great historical figures: the complex dilemmas they faced, the decisions they made, and the consequences of those decisions. The course also seeks to contextualize the visual arts, architecture, and music with the history of particular units to which they are attached, raising the sights of boys in terms of arts appreciation, and to complementing, reinforcing, and supplementing the arts curriculum in other areas of the overall Roxbury Latin experience. Units of study include Ancient Israel, Classical Greece, the rise and fall of Rome, the life and influence of Jesus, the transition from the Middle Ages to the Age of Kings in the context of the Renaissance and the Reformation, the French Revolution, ideologies of the 19th century, the Great War and the Russian Revolution, Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, and heroes of the twentieth century. Books are selected to introduce students to a variety of primary and secondary historical sources. Among those read are Jarvis, Prophets, Poets, Priests, and Kings; Thucydides, selections from The History of the Peloponnesian War; Plato, The Last Days of Socrates; Holland, Rubicon; Stevens, Ferdinand and Isabella; Becker, Modern History; Massie, Nicholas and Alexandra; Goldston, The Life and Death of Nazi Germany; Wiesel, Night; and Patterson, Martin Luther King, Jr. and The Freedom Movement. Monographs are used to study Martin Luther, Louis XIV, Robespierre, and Napoleon. In addition to skills development in précis, essay, and documented paper writing, students research, produce, and orally defend a model or reproduction of a building (or group of buildings), historical scene, work of art, or artifact that is linked to Western Civilization.
AP Modern European History
(Class III elective) Through the study of European history from 1450 (the High Renaissance) to the present, this course traces major developments in political and diplomatic history against a backdrop of social and economic change, creating a context for better understanding contemporary institutions and modern intellectual and cultural forces that fundamentally shape our world today. The course emphasizes analysis of both historical evidence and historical interpretation through class discussion and expression of historical understanding in writing. Because the narrative of modern European history necessarily involves engagement with the global economic force of imperialism and global conflicts (WWI & WWII), this course seeks to lay a sure foundation for the study of U.S. History and other department electives.
Required of all boys in either Class I or Class II, this course is designed to develop historically literate citizens with an empathetic understanding of the complexity of the American experience as well as a love for the critical study of our nation’s past. The course focuses on three core themes: 1) constancy and change in economic and social realities; 2) watershed changes in American political life and interpretations of government’s role in protecting life, liberty, and property; and 3) America’s place in the world. Students conduct research for a paper, selecting from topics relevant to one of the course units (as determined by the instructor). In the final unit of the course, students undertake an oral history project connected to recent American history. Core readings are supplemented with numerous primary source documents.
AP Economics, offered to members of Class I, is the study of choices that individuals, firms, and societies must make as they use scarce resources to provide for material well-being. This course presents the tools of micro- and macroeconomic analysis. Macro topics include the market system of economic organization, economic growth, productivity, the role of government, the financial system, inflation, unemployment, short-term economic fluctuations, exchange rate determination, and theoretical controversies. Micro topics include applications of supply and demand analysis, elasticity, production theory, the organization of industry (including monopoly and oligopoly), labor markets, income inequality, externalities, poverty, and trade. Whenever possible, we will consider international dimensions and comparisons. Students are asked to master introductory economic theory, take part in debates, and analyze the issues with some degree of sophistication. Students are also expected to be familiar with current economic events as presented in The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, or The Economist. A major objective of the course is to introduce basic economic principles and the kinds of questions and techniques used by economists in their analysis. Finally, students will also become familiar with a variety of data sources available on the Internet. Students are required to take the Advanced Placement Microeconomics Exam and the Advanced Placement Macroeconomics Exam in May.
AP Art History
AP Art History is a full-year elective open to Classes II and I, offered jointly by the Art and History Departments. In it students study great works of art and architecture across civilizations and through time. It is not a course in “art appreciation,” though students encounter works of great beauty and come to appreciate the extraordinary creativity behind their making. Instead, AP Art History exposes students to the many forces that can and do shape works of art: politics, religion, trade, war, mathematics, philosophy, poetry, technology, engineering, wealth, gender dynamics, even death. Above all, students learn to analyze artworks both visually and historically, articulating how they look, why they look the way they do, how they were used, what they mean, and why they are worth studying. To prepare for the AP Art History Exam, students learn to identify and contextualize works of art and write effectively about them. At the end of the year, they are asked to present, both orally and in writing, original research about a work of art, artist, or tradition of their own choosing. The course uses primary sources whenever relevant and includes visits to museums whenever possible in order to study art works first-hand. Students are required to take the AP Art History Exam in May.
AP U.S. Government and Politics
AP U.S. Government and Politics, offered to members of Class I who have taken U.S. History as a prerequisite in Class II, introduces students to political concepts, institutions, and behaviors that characterize and animate our constitutional system and political culture. By studying certain foundational documents, Supreme Court decisions and other texts, this course attempts to broaden students’ understanding of the relationships and interactions among political institutions, processes, individuals, and social groups. By learning to read and interpret data, make comparisons and applications, and develop evidence-based arguments, students gain an appreciation for the constitutional and theoretical foundations of the American political system, the major institutions of government, the electoral process (with a primary focus on the 2020 presidential race), and the formation of public policy. Each student will also produce a political science research or applied civics project as part of this course. Students are required to take the Advanced Placement U.S. Government & Politics Exam in May.
Contemporary Global Issues
Contemporary Global Issues, offered to members of Class I who have taken U.S. History as a prerequisite in Class II, recognizes that we live in an increasingly dynamic and complex world, one in which the rapid sharing of information brings global events into our lives in real time. An understanding of the political, historical, economic, and cultural contexts surrounding these pivotal current events is critical to understanding not just the events themselves, but also their origins. This course thus seeks to broaden and deepen students’ awareness of contemporary global issues. Although the dynamic nature of world events demands flexibility in the curriculum, issues such as race relations, the refugee crisis, human rights, and global conflict (including 21st century warfare) will be emphasized. Students can expect to research the historical roots of various global issues, write evaluations of current policies, and make speeches advocating a next-step approach. For a culminating project in the spring, each student will create a portfolio of work on a global issue of his choosing. In addition to this in-depth, issue-based work, students will read and be quizzed on a broad array of current events as chronicled by national periodicals of varying political perspectives. An interest in reading the news, a willingness to pursue information, and openness to multiple points of view are essential qualities that students must bring to the course.
Race and Gender in American Society
Taught by our Smith Visiting Scholar, this course is offered to members of Class I who have taken U.S. History as a prerequisite in Class II. Although the notion that race and gender are “social constructions” is often deployed in scholarly discourse, media discussions, and everyday speech, the idea still remains poorly understood. This misunderstanding arises primarily from the fact that the historicity of these ideas—how they arose historically—is not well known. In this class students trace the rise of the ideas of race and gender historically, from the 17th century onward. Students’ primary task is to understand how and why it came to be that each person must be ‘assigned’ a race and a gender, then uncover how the categories have changed over time and what factors led to them coming to take their current form.